But here A, God, is a unique cause and B, the universe, is a unique effect. Behe argues that such a feature could not evolve all at once, and that any precursor to it has no evolutionary function for cells. Machines do not just come together by chance; they are created by skilled human beings. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion: Part II In Part I of his Dialogues, Hume introduces his three speakers, who each take a distinct philosophical approach to religion. A summary of Part X (Section3) in David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Cleanthes bases his belief in empirical theism on the argument from design. SparkNotes is brought to you by Barnes & Noble. In this chapter all of Philo's objections aim to show either that the argument from design does not really have the proper form necessary for an inductive inference or that it is an improper use of an argument by analogy. He provides arguments for both of these claims. Chapter Summary for David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, part 4 summary. Because Hume is an empiricist (i.e. On the other hand, intelligent design arguments claim that the successful characteristics of living creatures appear all at once, because of the handiwork of an intelligent creator. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. He compares all of nature to an exquisitely designed machine with interlocking parts, of which the seamless functioning provides strong evidence an intelligent being intentionally created nature. Second, the analogy between the universe and a machine does not necessarily work because it is not an analogy between two separately existing entities, but between the universe as a whole and certain parts of the universe (i.e. Upload them to earn free Course Hero access! 26 Nov. 2020. Some order, such as that found in organic bodies, is caused by generation and vegetation. Philo agrees that God's existence is beyond doubt and he also agrees that God's nature cannot be known. Demea disapproves of Cleanthes's arguments, complaining that it is inappropriate to say that God resembles humans. Retrieved November 26, 2020, from https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Dialogues-Concerning-Natural-Religion/. Together, Demea and Philo paint a bleak picture of our universe. A dandelion seed moves across the land by taking advantage of the wind to spread dandelions across the land. Demea begins by expressing surprise that Cleanthes thinks Demea is attempting to defend the idea that God exists. First, the analogy between the universe and a machine is weak, for he claims that the world does not really resemble a machine all that well. However, Philo argues, Cleanthes's examples do not have such similarities and have not been observed frequently enough, if at all. However, it is questionable whether this last surprising assertion is an expression of Hume's own opinion, as he was a notorious skeptic and critic of organized Christianity. There is no reason, then, to think that just because the world is ordered, it is necessarily a result of intelligent design. Behe reasons that such biological structures could not have arisen gradually as a result of unguided, random natural forces. However, in the last chapter Philo does an about face and provisionally accepts the argument from design. Philo replies that he is merely showing the weaknesses of the "analogical reasoning" Cleanthes is using to form his argument. Cleanthes disagrees with Demea and Philo. By looking at the natural world we see that it resembles nothing so much as a work of human artifice (which, for the sake of ease, we can just call a "machine"). Finally, he ends by espousing a fideist position that would have made Demea proud if he had not already exited in a huff at the end of the previous chapter: philosophical skepticism, Philo tells Cleanthes, is the only proper route to true Christianity, it forces us to turn toward revelation by undermining our faith in reason. In the Dialogues Hume states this idea as, "[f]rom similar effects we infer similar causes."

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