All four primary controls are used in close coordination when making turns. To establish the desired angle of bank, the pilot should use outside visual reference points, as well as the bank indicator on the attitude indicator. The glide ratio is based only on the relationship of the aerodynamic forces acting on the airplane. [Figure 3-8] In proper coordinated flight, there is no skidding or slipping. Elevator/stabilator should be trimmed first to relieve the need for control pressure to maintain constant airspeed/pitch attitude. Consequently, the pilot must be There are four fundamental basic flight maneuvers upon which all flying tasks are based: straight and level flight, turns, climbs, and descents. Attempting to use improper reference points on the airplane to establish attitude. [Figure 3-1] Attitude is the angular difference measured between an airplane’s axis and the line of the Earth’s horizon. "Ground shyness"--making "flat turns" (skidding) while operating at low altitudes in a conscious or subconscious effort to avoid banking close to the ground. Attempting to establish climb pitch attitude by referencing the airspeed indicator, resulting in "chasing" the airspeed. Continually observing the wingtips has advantages other than being the only positive check for leveling the wings. Decrease in effective lift due to the direction of the lifting force being at an angle to the pull of gravity. Doing that, it both sets the pitch attitude in the turn and "pulls" the nose of the airplane around the turn. Excessive rudder pressure during recovery from gliding turns. or the reference point from which the movements In order to maintain the most efficient or normal glide in a turn, more altitude must be sacrificed than in a straight glide since this is the only way speed can be maintained without power. Applying elevator pressure too aggressively during level-off resulting in negative "G" forces. Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures. The rudder offsets any yaw effects developed by the other controls. Integrated or composite method of flight instruction. relation to the pilot. When applying aileron to bank the airplane, the lowered aileron (on the rising wing) produces a greater drag than the raised aileron (on the lowering wing). Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes Abnormal glides being those conducted at speeds other than the normal best glide speed. Pitch attitude is the angle formed by the longitudinal axis, and bank attitude is the angle formed by the lateral axis. and feet should not be tense; they must be relaxed Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes This point is particularly important in so-called clean airplanes as they are very slow to lose their speed and any slight deviation of the nose downwards results in an immediate increase in airspeed. This best glide speed corresponds to an angle of attack resulting in the least drag on the airplane and giving the best lift-to-drag ratio (L/DMAX). Rudder pressure maintained after the turn is established will cause the airplane to skid to the outside of the turn. It will also make understanding of the functions of the controls much easier, particularly when performing steep banked turns and the more advanced maneuvers. Ground Reference Maneuvers In explaining the functions of the controls, the instructor should emphasize that the controls never change in the results produced in relation to the pilot. At any given airspeed, aileron pressure is not required to maintain the bank. Normal climb speed is generally somewhat higher than the airplane’s best rate of climb. Complex or high performance airplanes may have a specified cruise climb in addition to normal climb. development of "feel," which is an important part of

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